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Influence of Lecithin on Structure and Stability of Parenteral Fat Emulsions

Den Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultäten
der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
Erlangung des Doktorgrades

vorgelegt von
Christoph Wabel
aus Frankfurt am Main

Als Dissertation genehmigt von den Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultäten der
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg

Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 30.07.1998

Vorsitzender der Promotionskommission: Prof. Dr. D. Kölzow
Erstberichterstatter: Prof. Dr. G. Lee
Zweitberichterstatter: Prof. Dr. E. Nürnberg

To my parents
and Andrea

Knowledge comes,
but wisdom lingers
(Lord Alfred Tennyson, 1842)


For contribution to this work I am indebted to:

Prof. Geoffrey Lee who made this work possible, gave me encouraging and constructive discussions and supported me in my efforts to improve my approaches to this field.

Prof. Dr. Eberhard Nuernberg for being co-referee and his helpful hints on pharmacopeial issues.
All the colleagues at the Department for a comfortable and friendly working atmosphere.
Dr. Detlef Schenk for his efforts concerning the thermoanalytical equipment.

Prof. Dr. Manige Fartasch, Institute of Dermatology, University of Erlangen for the opportunity to use the TEM.
Prof. Dr. Karl-Ernst Wirth, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Erlangen for his permission to carry out the measurements on the Zetasizer 3000.
Prof. Dr. Martin Stratmann and Dipl. Ing. Elke Hornung, Institute of Material Sciences, University of Erlangen for the opportunity to use the film balance.

Outside the University of Erlangen I want to express my sincere thanks to the following persons:
Prof. Michael Groves, Institute for Tuberculosis Research, University of Illinois at Chicago for inspiring this work, helpful suggestions and for his support ‘through the wire’.
Prof. Dr. Werner Maentele, University of Frankfurt/Main, for his help in obtaining and evaluating the FT-IR thin film cuvette.
Prof. Dr. Christel Mueller-Goymann and Carmen Groechtemeier, Institute of Pharmaceutics, University of Braunschweig for permitting and performing preparation of freeze-fracture specimen.
Prof. Dr. Rolf Schubert and Margret Froehlich, Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Freiburg for their kind support and help in conducting the Cryo-TEM experiments.
Prof. Dr. Ingfried Zimmermann, Department of Pharmaceutics, University of Wuerzburg for the opportunity to repeatedly undertake measurements with the LS230.
Prof. Dr. Achim Goepferich, Department of Pharmaceutics, now University of Regensburg, for helpful advice and the opportunity to use the flying-spot densitometer.
All the people at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Murcia, especially Prof. Dr. José Villalaín Boullón, now University of Elche, for the invitation to stay at the Department, his invaluable help and advice concerning the 31P-NMR measurements and for introducing me to the ‘tapas murcianas’. Gracias a todos !
DAAD and ‘acciónes integradas’ are acknowledged for the grant for my stay in Murcia as well as Dr. Christoph Johann, Wyatt Deutschland, for realising the AFFF measurements.

For generously providing me with all kinds of materials and support I want to thank the companies BASF AG, Henkel KG, B.Braun Melsungen AG, Fresenius AG, Lipoid KG and Pharmacia & Upjohn GmbH. Especially Franz Kachler and Gabriela Wolf, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Erlangen and Dres. Zirkel and Waibel, Lipoid KG, Ludwigshafen have to be given thanks for their continued support, valuable information and fruitful discussions.

Last but not least I wish to thank everybody else at the Department who made the time there so memorable: Winfried Bauer for his skills in repairing, improving or even inventing all kinds of parts. Christiane Blaha is given thanks for supplying me with materials in due time, Waltrud Klenk and Petra Neubarth for being helpful in ever renewing paperwork and Luise Schedl for preparation of slides.

Finally, special thanks go to Anette Brunner for the great comradeship in our lab, Michael Adler for some great nine years of mutual profit, compassion and encouragement, all the colleagues who shared the students’ practical courses with me and the ‘human interface’ crew at the universities’ computing centre who helped me in overcoming all the imperfections of software, hardware and the user and supported me in keeping the network up ;-).

All those, who could not be mentioned here, please be sure of my gratefulness and sympathy.

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